Lone Star College - Kingwood
American Cultural History
1970 - 1979
|FACTS about this decade.
Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000
National Debt: $382 billion
Average salary: $7,564
Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound
Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8
The chaotic events of the 60's, including war
and social change, seemed destined to continue in the 70's. Major
trends included a growing disillusionment of government, advances in
civil rights, increased influence of the women's movement, a heightened
concern for the environment, and increased space exploration.
Many of the "radical" ideas of the 60's gained wider acceptance in the
new decade, and were mainstreamed into American life and culture.
Amid war, social realignment and presidential impeachment proceedings,
American culture flourished. Indeed, the events of
the times were reflected in and became the inspiration for much of the
music, literature, entertainment, and even fashion of the decade.
The purpose of this web and library guide is to help the user gain a broad understanding and appreciation for the culture and history of the 1970s. In a very small way, this is a bibliographic essay. While there is no way we can link to everything, we have attempted to find areas of special interest and to select information that we hold dear today - movies we watch, songs we sing, events that move us, people we admire.
see the whole picture, we encourage users to browse all the way through
this page and then visit the suggested links for more information on
the decade. We feel the best way to immerse oneself in a topic is
to use both Internet and the library. The real depth of
information is best read in books. More photographs, more
depth. Then, there is information that will be found only
on the Internet; a journal from someone, photographs like those on our
pages. If you can add a valuable site or information to this
we invite you to write.
Thanks for the visit. ENJOY!
ART & ARCHITECTURE
art reflected a slowing and refinement of some of the avant-garde
trends prominent in the Sixties. Earth art, a movement that combined environmental and minimalist ideas
on a large scale, was promoted by artists such as Michael
Walter de Maria,
Oldenburg, and Richard Serra. Massive earthworks such as Smithson's Spiral
Jetty, challenged all the rules regarding mass, time, size, and
space. Land art
art, variations of earth art, were also prominent. Other
notable schools of art were illusionism, which sought to surprise
viewers and cause them to question their interpretation of reality, and photo
realism and hyperrealism,
photography, created by such artists as Richard Estes. Pop Art was still represented by artists such as Andy Warhol and David Hockney; and George Segal continued to sculpt his white plaster, such as Three Figures on Four Benches (1979). The influence of the women's movement was represented by Lynda Benglis, Jackie Winsor, and Judy Chicago, who created the feminist art exhibition, The Dinner Party. Performance art challenged the traditional, stationary aspect of art. Andrew Wyeth began painting his Helga pictures.
In architecture, the "modern movement" retreated and there was a gradual move toward architectural humanism and a renewed respect for traditional and historical design. Increasingly architects attempted to consider the needs and feelings of the people who would use their buildings.
The historical element is
evident in the pyramid form of San Francisco's Transamerica
Building (William L. Pereira, 1972) and the classical Piazza d'Italia in
Moore, 1979). Houston's Pennzoil
Johnson and John Burgee, 1976) combined modernism with humanism
utilizing an eight-story atrium to connect two trapezoid-shaped
towers. Architect Paolo
Soleri, advocated Arcology,
a new theory of architecture embodying the fusion of architecture with
ecology. Modernism survived in buildings such as the Frank
Gehry House in Santa Monica, California (1978), and the Dallas City
Hall , designed by I.M.
Other noteworthy structures of the decade include:
N6490 .L792 1997 Visual Arts in the Twentieth Century | History of art in the 20th Century which includes all art forms and architecture. Arranged chronologically by decade.
Ref N6512 .A578 1985 American Artists: Illustrated Survey of Leading Contemporary Americans | Reviews and biographical data on more than 1,000 living American artists.
N6537 .C48 A2 1996 Beyond the Flower: the Autobiography of a Feminist Artist | Autobiography of Judy Chicago.
N6537 .W86 W55 1987 Andrew Wyeth: the Helga Pictures | Photographs with criticism and interpretation.
N6797 .H57 A4 1993 Hockney, David. That's the Way I See It.
NA712 .L4 1993 20th Century American Architecture | Photographs and discussions of 200 key buildings.
NA712 .R86 1989 Architecture and Design, 1970-1990 | Discusses architectural trends as a reflection of the times.
NA737 .J6 A4 2002 The Architecture of Philip Johnson | includes almost 400 photographs of Johnson's creations with detailed building descriptions.
NA737 .K32 B73 1992 Kimbell Art Museum | Architecture in detail, an examination of the building with photos, drawings and discussion.
NB237 .S44 H86 1989 George Segal | Essay and 132 photographs of his true-to life sculptures, which often capture the pulse of the time.
NB237 .S46 A4 1998 Richard Serra: Sculpture | Retrospective study of more than 100 of his works.
Books That Define the Time
Award Winners -
Began in 1922 (most distinguished book of the previous year)
1970: Sounder by William H. Armstrong
1971: Summer of the Swans by Betsy Byars
1972: Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH by Robert C. O'Brien
1973: Julie of the Wolves by Jean Craighead George
1974: The Slave Dancer by Paula Fox
1975: M. C. Higgins, the Great by Virginia Hamilton
1976: The Grey King by Susan Cooper
1977: Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred D. Taylor
1978: Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson
1979: The Westing Game by Ellen Raskin
Award Winners -
Began in 1938 (most distinguished picture book of the previous year)
1970: Sylvester and the Magic Pebble by William Steig
1971: A Story A Story, retold and illustrated by Gail E. Haley
1972: One Fine Day, retold and illustrated by Nonny Hogrogian
1973: The Funny Little Woman, illustrated by Blair Lent; text: retold by Arlene Mosel
1974: Duffy and the Devil, illustrated by Margot Zemach; retold by Harve Zemach
1975: Arrow to the Sun by Gerald McDermott
1976: Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears, illustrated by Leo & Diane Dillon; text: retold by Verna Aardema
1977: Ashanti to Zulu: African Traditions, illustrated by Leo & Diane Dillon; text: Margaret Musgrove
1978: Noah's Ark by Peter Spier
1979: The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses by Paul Goble
LA 216 .C73
: The Metropolitan Experience 1876-1980
education. Other titles by Lawrence A. Cremin also may be helpful.
Ref LB15 .E47 2003
Encyclopedia of Education
Eight volume set with more than 850 signed articles examining institutions, processes, roles, and philosophies. Also includes brief biographies of influential educators and relevant Supreme Court cases.
Ref LB15 .H57 1999
Historical Dictionary of American Education
Contains more than 350 alphabetically arranged entries on the development of American elementary and secondary education.
The final long
chapter contains a history of the American educational system.
|Ref E169.1.P19 1991||Panati's Parade of Fads, Follies and Manias||Arranged by decade, includes fads, dance crazes, radio, TV, popular books and songs.|
|E169.1.S9733 1984||Culture as History: The Transformation of American Society in the Twentieth Century||Excellent source for this topic. Events which transformed the social, political and cultural face of America in this century.|
|GT510 .B6713 1987||20,000 Years of Fashion||Chapter XIII covers 1960-1983. With illustrations and photographs.|
|GT605.H35 1992||Common Threads: A Parade of American Clothing||Includes an overview of the 20th century, then chapters on contributors to changes in fashion.|
M. Nixon (1969-1974), Gerald
Ford (1974-1977), and Jimmy
Houston's U.S. Representative Barbara Jordan gained national prominence with her eloquence during the Watergate investigation and hearings which resulted in impeachment proceedings against Nixon.
IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL EVENTS
|22 April 1970||First "Earth Day" celebrated as environmental movement launched.|
|4 May 1970||Four students killed when National Guardsmen opened fire during anti-war demonstrations at Kent State University in Ohio.|
Gay Pride march held in New York City commemorating the first
anniversary of the Stonewall
Rebellion, considered to be the beginning of the moderm GLBT
|24 April 1971||Huge anti-war march in Washington, D.C.|
|Daniel Ellsberg leaks the Pentagon Papers, massive collection of top-secret government documents, whose publication helps to discredit the Vietnam War policies of the Nixon administration.|
|17 May 1972||Republican agents burglarize Democratic headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.|
|29 May 1972||Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) signed by U.S. & Soviets.|
|5,6 September 1972||Nineteen killed in terrorist siege at Munich Olympic Games|
|1973||Arab oil embargo causes severe shortage and energy prices skyrocket|
|22 January 1973||Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalizes abortion|
|10 October 1973||Amid charges of corruption and scandal, VP Spiro Agnew pleads no contest to income tax evasion and resigns from office.|
|6 December 1973||Gerald Ford, congressman from Michigan, becomes the new vice president.|
|1974||Economy in worst recession in 40 years.|
|9 August 1974||Ford becomes the thirty-eighth president after Richard Nixon, facing impeachment charges, is forced to resign.|
|1975||United Nations declares International Year of the Woman.|
|30 April 1975||South Vietnam falls to Communist forces of North Vietnam.|
|4 July 1976||The country commemorates the 200th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with a spectacular bicentennial celebration.|
|1978||Residents of Love Canal, NY, evacuated due to dangerous toxic chemicals buried in the area.|
|19 November 1978.||American religious cult leader Jim Jones and 900 People's Temple followers die in mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana.|
|28 March 1979||Radioactive leak at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant.|
militant students seize the U.S. embassy in Tehran capturing 66
hostages and setting off an intense standoff that lasted 444-days.
|Cesar Chavez||Organized farm workers to demand higher wages, health insurance, and other benefits for migrant workers in California.|
|Shirley Chisholm||First African-American woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; ran for the office of President of the United States in 1972.|
|Patty Hearst||Granddaughter of newspaper mogul, William Randolph Hearst, kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army, and subsequently participated with the SLA in an armed robbery of a San Francisco bank.|
|Jesse Jackson||A leader in the civil rights movement who founded PUSH (People United to Save Humanity) in 1971.|
|George McGovern||The senator from South Dakota was shot five times while campaigning to be the 1972 Democratic Party nominee for President in 1972.|
|Karen Silkwood||An employee of the Kerr-McGee nuclear processing plant who was killed in a car crash on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter to reveal evidence of unsafe and illegal practices at the nuclear plant.|
|Benjamin Spock||A pediatrician, author, and social reformer whose permissive philosophy in his influential book, The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, was blamed for a wide range of social problems in the 1970's.|
|George Wallace||Governor of Alabama; shot and paralyzed from the waist down while campaigning for the presidency in 1972 on an anti-bussing, law and order platform.|
|Andrew Young||First African-American voted into the U.S. House of Representatives from the deep South since 1898.|
|Ref E174.D52 2003||Dictionary of American History||From very brief to multi-page signed entries on topics in American History.|
|Ref E169.1.A471872 1995||America in the 20th Century||1970-1979 is covered in volume 8. Typical of Marshall Cavendish publications, this encyclopedic set is accessible and gives easy to use background information for this decade. Covers from art to transportation.|
|Ref E173.A793||The Annals of America||Volumes 19 covers the early part of this decade through 1973. Set contains essays and excepts from important writers and on important topics of the time. Most valuable for this research.|
|Ref ML200.H15 1996||A Chronicle of American Music 1700-1995||Arranged by year, historical highlights, world cultural highlights, American art and literature, music - commercial and cultural.|
|Ref ML197.S634 1994||Music Since 1900||Arranged by day, includes important premiers and musical events.|
|Ref ML390.S983 1986||Show Tunes 1905-1985||Features important composers. Lists their shows and the published music for each show.|
|Ref ML3470 .M36||Illustrated History of Popular Music||20 volumes covering the music, events, and people of Rock.|
Television came of age in the Seventies as topics once considered taboo were broached on the airwaves for the first time. Leading the way was the humorous social satire of All in the Family, which had plots on many controversial issues such as abortion, race, and homosexuality. Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered sacred. Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country. The immensely popular TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in African American history. Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically presented the contemporary family. The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children, and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings.
Library of Congress browse area: PN1700 - PN230
|Ref PN1992.18 .E53 2004||Encyclopedia of Television||A comprehensive examination of the people, organizations, technology, and productions that have made television a major influence of the 20th Century (4 vols.).|
|Ref PN2189.L65 1983||Twentieth Century Theatre||A theater buff's bible. This book lists and describes by year premiers, productions, revivals, events, births/death/debuts in both America and Great Britain. Vol. 2 covers 1948-1979.|
|PN1993.5 .U6 H55||History of the American Cinema||Volume 9 covers 1970-1979.|
Big Business dominated the sports
world in the Seventies. Television had opened the door to major
changes during the Sixties, and business sought ways to exploit and
profit from the new sports market.
Professional athletes, previously "owned" by their teams, demanded and received the right to "free agency," whereby they would be able to market themselves to the highest bidder. By 1979, baseballer Pete Rose was able to negotiate a $1 million per year contract. Before 1970 only a few athletes earned more than $100,000 per year; at the end of the decade hundreds did. Additionally, professional atheletes substantially increased their worth by appearing in television and print advertisements and endorsing products. In one of the more interesting television commercials, famed New York Jets quaterback Joe Namath appeared in women's pantyhouse to promote Beautymist hosiery.
This decade also saw the rise of "Ping Pong Diplomacy," as the Americans faced the Chinese in a series of highly publicized matches.
Notable Sports Events of the Seventies
March 13, 1971 – Legendary race car driver Mario Andretti won the Grand Prix of South Africa, his first Grand Prix victory. In 1978, he won the World Championship of auto racing.
1972 – U.S. swimmer Mark Spitz won an unprecedented seven gold medals at the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany.
1972 – A.J. Foyt made racing history by winning the Indianapolis 500, 24 hours of Le Mans, and the Daytona 500.
1973 – Secretariat won the Triple Crown of horse racing, winning the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness, and then the Belmont.
1973 – Roberto Clemente was the first Latin American to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.
Sept. 20, 1973 – Billie Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in the much-hyped "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match.
February 18, 1973 – Stunt driver Evel Knievel jumped across 50 cars stacked four deep in the Los Angeles Collesium.
April 8, 1974 –Hank Aaron slammed in the 715th home run of his career, topping the previous record set by Babe Ruth.
1975 – Martina Navratilova turned pro, setting off one of the major rivalries in women's tennis with Chris Evert. Of the 80 times they faced other, Martina won 43 and Chris 37.
February 5, 1977 – Tai Babilonia and Randy Gardner won the first of four consecutive national U.S. Figure Skating titles.
February 25, 1978 – Kurt Thomas became the first American man to win a medal at the World Gymnastics Championships, taking a first-place gold in the floor exercise.
A Century of Sports | The top athletes, teams, games, moments, and achievements are listed and ranked on an impressive site created by "huge sports fan" Craig Warner
National Football League History,1971-1980 | Major events and players in the history of the NFL, by decade and year
The SI Vault | Sports history from Sports Illustrated
The Vault from SportingNews.com | Sports history of the 20th Century
Sports: Breaking Records, Breaking Barriers | an online exhibition of American sports history from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History
Sports123.com | Lists the top three finishers in world championships for almost every sport, as well as the Olympics, Pan American Games, and other major international meets
Library of Congress browse area: GV
© 1999 [Lonestar College-Kingwood
Design by: Peggy Whitley Written by: Charles Gillis Updated: 08/2010 cg
Pictures from Sue Goodwin, Peggy Whitley and Pricilla Milam.
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